The average betta fish lifespan for male and females is 2-4 years in captivity. How long a betta fish will live depends on a variety of factors though. The two most important elements are how old a betta is when you get him or her, and how they are cared for in captivity.

If possible, purchase a betta from a local or online breeder like Aquabid instead of a pet or big box store. These stores will sell male bettas when they are approximately one year old, and female bettas when they are roughly six months old. This will affect how long you have them.

Buy a Healthy Betta Fish

It’s always unclear how they have been cared for when coming from suppliers, and unknown breeders. This means they may have been subjected to cramped environments, diseases, and parasites which can shorten their lifespan.

Getting a healthy betta from the start is a key factor in how long they will live. Buying a young betta is important if you want to have them throughout most or all of their life too. Healthy betta fish will have bright coloring (males), no scale or fin damage, and be active and feisty upon your presence.

Betta Life Span Graph

How Long Do Betta Fish Live: Wild vs Captivity

  • Betta fish live in the wild, on average, 2 years
  • Betta fish live in captivity, on average, 3 years

What is the Oldest Betta?

With the right genetics, environment, and care from the onset of a betta’s life, they can live up to 6 or 7 years or more. Several owners have even reported lifespans of 9 and 10 years, but that’s not realistic for every betta.

Because there are so many myths about the proper care for this species in captivity, their life spans are drastically reduced and almost always cut in half. Bettas tend to be a first-time fish keepers choice (or gift) because of their resilience and beauty. This often leads to betta keeping before doing the proper research on how to care for them.

Betta Fish Life Span in Bowls

A betta fish’s lifespan will almost always be significantly reduced if you house them in unfiltered and unheated bowls. This is especially true if they are under 2 gallons in size. Stick to eating cereal out of bowls, not housing any fish in them!

Pet stores display betta fish in plastic cups because of their aggression and territorial nature. This is a temporary habitat since cohabitation is tricky with females and other fish, and not possible with males. Also, just because pet stores sell small tanks and bowls (e.g. 1 gallon) this is not the correct habitat for them.

Improve How Long a Betta Fish Will Live

Getting back to the most important elements in a betta’s life expectancy, there are certain things you can do to help your betta fish live longer.

Quick Tips:

  • High-quality food, that’s high in protein and fiber
  • Habitat size of 5 gallons (2.5 gallons minimum)
  • Tank cover to prevent leaping out to their death
  • Tap water with water conditioner to remove harmful chlorine
  • Consistent water changes, cycling, and cleanings
  • Filtration to oxygenate and remove ammonia and bad bacteria
  • Heater to maintain 76-81 degrees Fahrenheit water temperature
  • Allow easy access to the water’s surface for air
  • Plants and hideouts to feel safe


Provide rich and abundant food that’s high in protein and fiber. Most betta fish won’t even touch regular tropical fish flakes because this food is inadequate to their needs. While betta pellets are a great start, you should also be incorporating freeze-dried, frozen, or live bloodworms and brine shrimp to really get all of the nutrients they need.

In the wild, betta fish have abundant access to prey and are active carnivores (insectivores to be exact). In captivity, you need to replicate their environment as much as possible, and that means nutrition too. Avoid overfeeding them, because it can lead to complications too.


Fluval Spec 5 Gallon


The recommended habitat size for a betta fish is 5 gallons, with a minimum recommended tank size of 2.5 gallons. They also need lots of spaces to hide and rest, while feeling safe. Make sure your tank has a top on it too because betta fish are jumpers and often leap right out of a bowl leading to their death.


Another leading cause to reduced lifespans is poor water quality. Do not use distilled water because it has been stripped of the essential nutrients and minerals that betta fish need to be healthy.

Use tap water and make sure to use a (dechlorinator) water conditioner to make the water safe for a betta. You can also use trusted quality spring water or a filtration unit like a Brita for tank fill ups and water cycling.


Smaller tanks will also require more frequent cleanings because of their size, it’s simple math! A 1 gallon would require daily water changes while maintaining a constant temperature which is extremely hard to do and leads to constant stress.

Ammonia builds up as your betta excretes waste into the water and as uneaten food and live plants break down. Diseases from this can harm your betta and often lead to death from poor water quality. Keep your betta fish’s tank clean and consider using a filter to reduce ammonia, nitrites, and nitrites.


As a final recommendation, betta fish are tropical fish and require a steady warm water temperature in the range of 76-81 degrees Fahrenheit. If necessary, purchase a small (e.g. 25 watt) heater with a built in thermostat for tanks 2.5 gallons and above. This will help to keep the tank’s water temperature consistent.

Avoid abrupt temperature changes and avoid colder temperatures at all costs. Extended time in temperatures colder than recommended (less than 68 degrees) can hurt a betta’s natural immune system and lead to inactivity, refusal to eat, and susceptibility to diseases and death.

Betta Knowledge and Life Spans

If you already knew the information above, then good for you! If not, then you’ve got some work to do and you should definitely read our full betta care guide. With the right knowledge and passion, you can certainly expect your betta fish to live for 2-3 years.

Some betta fish are more resilient than others though. While you can reverse some of the damage from living in small cups and coming from an uncertain past, you may never know the full story of their care or breeding. If your betta fish lives a year or two from the time of purchase, you have likely still been a good fish mom or dad.

If you feel something is missing above, or have further questions about how long a betta fish can live for, or how to improve their life span, please leave a comment below.

About The Author

Founder & CFO (Chief Fish Officer)

Founder of and betta fish enthusiast. With over six years of betta husbandry experience, I wanted to create a place that was educational and fun for other betta keepers. Stick around, you'll learn a lot!

Related Posts

13 Responses

  1. Ayesha Mutope

    I have two Bettas and a divided 2.5 gallon tank. Is there a way to use an automatic Betta feeder where both fish can be fed daily?

    • Bryan

      I’d recommend a larger tank if you have two betta’s. Ideally, a 10 gallon divided tank so each fish has 5 gallons on each side. This would give you more tank room to set up 2 automatic daily feeders. I’m not sure how you would use only one as distribution would probably be inconsistent at the middle of the divider – falling on each side.

  2. Barbara

    Yay, I’m doing it right! According to the Quick Tips inset, at least…😉
    This is my first experience with bettas, I have only raised cichlids — I am sooooo impressed with these fish! So much personality…I am quite smitten.
    I just set up a 10 gal planted tank for a breeding pair that currently live in a 4 gal. After many attempts, they finally have viable offspring! I’m a grandma!
    I also just purchased a brine shrimp breeding setup to hopefully provide nutritious live food. (The adults LOVE the mosquitos that I catch for them! — repleat with MY blood, lol.)
    I am wary about moving them while their fry are still growing, but they have started a new nest and are laying more eggs. I would leave them where they are, but algae has taken over, the filter is cavatating (which means it isn’t sucking the fry into it…) just not wild about the precariousness of this tank and think a 10 gal will be easier to control.
    Thoughts or suggestions??
    Thank you!

    • Bryan

      That’s awesome Barbara, aren’t betta fish the best? Sounds like you’re doing an excellent job and yes the 10g would be easier to control, but not at the expense of potentially disrupting things if that’s what you’re worried about? If everyone seems healthy, a transfer attempt is probably not too risky though.

  3. Teniyahelb

    Hi so my fish like sleeping in the day time and likes to lay far away from she ok?

  4. Shannon

    Hi, Bryan,
    There is so much conflicting advice out there, I just don’t know who to turn to anymore. I have a beautiful, sweet little betta who I love more than anything. He is very affectionate, and loves me right back. We have such a bond, and I want to ensure he has the best and longest life he possibly can. For weeks now, he has had trouble staying down, and although swimming actively, eventually floats right back up to the surface. He has always preferred to spend most of his time at the top, but he doesn’t appear to have much of a choice these days. He’s still his sweet, happy and social self, but when I see him float onto his side, I get nervous. Initially it was worse, and I fasted him 3 days and then fed him 1/4 pea. Since then, he’s been himself again, although as I described above. Can you advise me on water changes and feeding? He’s currently in what is technically a 3g bowl that fits a full 2.5 gallons of water, with the addition of his marbles and heater. The temperature remains at a steady 78 degrees. The lovely and experienced fish keepers at my LFS advised that any filter would be too strong for that amount of water, so just to make sure his water changes are good. A 25% weekly water change was recommended. Are you in agreeance? I am feeding him 2 tiny pellets twice a day, morning and night. Today, he had thawed frozen daphnia instead. I never had any problems before I tried bloodworms, so I’ll never give him those agains. Any advice? I should note he’s a doubletail, and I’ve read they are prone to such issues. Thank you in advance! This was a very long question.

    • Bryan

      Hi Shannon, yes there truly is which is why I try my best to continue educating and responding to questions like yours. The bloodworms could have initially caused the issue and maybe some level of swim bladder disorder which on occasion may never fully heal. I have a female betta who is about 4 years old who got SBD and now she sinks like a rock as soon as she stops swimming ever since. I have a lot of leaf hammocks and other debris at the surface for her to rest on and keep the tank’s water low so she can get to the surface for air. The care you’ve outlined here sounds pretty spot-on and you’re doing everything you should be. I hope it’s not the case and the swim bladder regulating returns for your betta, but yes they are prone to the issue more than the other betta varieties.

  5. Annette

    This is our 2nd beta. First one had a lot of personality. This one is cupcake 2. Took some time. But now I guess comfortable has a leaf that it lays on a lot of the day. When you speak or tap the tank come up to say hello. I have to clean tank very frequently.

  6. Mel

    My Archie is 3 years old and I love him more than ANYTHING! He has helped me so much with my depression. He is smart and funny AF!!! GREAT information Bryan. I just love this website!

  7. Karen

    I have two bettas in small bowls, have had them for a year and they don’t look very good. They eat but one especially is sick. He lays on his side and can’t upright himself. The other one is limited also but not quite as bad. I tried the pea thing but they didn’t eat it. I thought when I bought them that they could be in a bowl but since then I’ve learned that they need more room and a heater. I’m not really able to spend a lot of money on them. Is there anything I can do to help them that doesn’t cost a lot?

    • Bryan

      If you are going to keep them healthy in the meantime, you should at the minimum do daily 10-20% water changes in the bowls. In such a small habitat, their life span is usually reduced.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.